2009年考研英语阅览真题及解析【第一篇】(2009年考研英语阅读答案)



2009年考研英语阅览真题及解析【第一篇】(2009年考研英语阅读答案)缩略图

passage1注解:标题为赤色,翻译为蓝色,分析为绿色。????????habits are a funny thing. we reach for them mindlessly, setting our brains on auto-pilot and relaxing into the unconscious comfort of familiar routine. “not choice, but habit rules the unreflecting((不理解得反思的,不理解得反过来思考的)) herd(兽群,畜群,人群(文章是指人群)),” william wordsworth said in the 19th century. in the ever-changing 21st century, even the word “habit” carries a negative implication.
????? ?so it seems paradoxical to talk about habits in the same context as creativity and innovation. but brain researchers have discovered that when we consciously develop new habits, we create parallel paths, and even entirely new brain cells, that can jump our trains of thought onto new, innovative tracks.
????????rather than dismissing(辞退的,言外之意就是:咱们关于不成不变的生物习气是不认可的) ourselves as unchangeable creatures of habit, we can instead direct our own change by consciously developing new habits. in fact, the more new things we try—the more we step outside our comfort zone—the more inherently(内在地,固有地) creative we become, both in the workplace and in our personal lives.
????????but don’t bother trying to kill off old habits; once those ruts(车辙,凹痕,老一套(取这个意思),常规(或许取这个意思)) of procedure are worn(这儿是weak变成的描述词,意思是“用旧的”)? into the brain, they’re there to stay. instead, the new habits we deliberately press into ourselves create parallel pathways that can bypass(绕过(取这个意思),路旁,还可以指搭桥手术) those old roads.
????????“the first thing needed for innovation is a fascination with wonder,” says dawna markova, author of the open mind. “but we are taught instead to ‘decide’, just as our president calls himself ‘the decider.’” she adds, however, that “to decide is to kill off all possibilities but one(这儿的one是跟前者构成比照对照,前者是杀死许多,那么这儿就是保存一个). a good innovational thinker is always exploring the many other possibilities.”
????????all of us work through problems in ways of which we’re unaware, she says. researchers in the late 1960s discovered that humans are born with the capacity to approach challenges in four primary ways: analytically, procedurally, relationally (or collaboratively) and innovatively. at the end of adolescence, however, the brain shuts down half of that capacity, preserving only those modes of thought that have seemed most valuable during the first decade or so of life.
????????the current emphasis on standardized testing highlights analysis and procedure, meaning that few of us inherently use our innovative and collaborative modes of thought. “this breaks the major rule in the american belief system—that anyone can do anything,” explains m. j. ryan, author of the 2006 book this year i will…and ms. markova’s business partner. “that’s a lie that we have perpetuated(使持续,使耐久(尤指不好的事物)), and it fosters commonness(共性,普通,普通(文章取这个意思)). knowing what you’re good at and doing even more of it creates excellence.” this is where developing new habits comes in(come in进来,起作用,有意义(文章取这个意思,显着文章是取的深层意思,而不是表面意思)).

一、文章规划分析这是一篇科技类文章,文章谈到培育新习气对思维立异的作用。
文章首段回想了传统观念的观点,
文章第二段经过一项最新的研讨引出了对习气的最新研讨观念。
后四个期间则从不一样方面鼓舞我们培育新习气。

21. in wordsworth’s view, “habits” is characterized by being __________.
? ? ? [a] casual? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? [b] familiar
? ? ? [c] mechanical? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? [d] changeable
21.根据wordsworth的观念,习气具有特征。
【a】偶尔的
【b】了解的
【c】机械的
【d】可变的

22. brain researchers have discovered that the formation of new habits can be __________.
? ? ? [a] predicted? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??
? ? ? [b] regulated
? ? ? [c] traced? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? [d] guided
22.研讨人员发现习气的构成可以被。
2009年考研英语阅览真题及解析【第一篇】(2009年考研英语阅读答案)插图

【a】猜测
【b】控制
【c】跟踪
【d】辅导

23. the word“ruts”(para. 4) is closest in meaning to __________.
? ? ? [a] tracks? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? [b] series
? ? ? [c] characteristics? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ??
? ? ? [d] connections
23.第三段的“ruts”与意义接近。
【a】痕迹
【b】系列
【c】特征
【d】联络

24. dawna markova would most probably agree that __________.
? ? ? [a] ideas are born of a relaxing mind
? ? ? [b] innovativeness could be taught
? ? ? [c] decisiveness derives from fantastic ideas
? ? ? [d] curiosity activates creative minds
24.dawna markova将最可以附和。
【a】观念诞生于放松的大脑
【b】立异可以被教会
【c】抉择计划源于夸姣的思维
【d】猎奇激起立异思维

25. ryan’s comments suggest that the practice of standardized testing __________.
? ? ? [a] prevents new habits from being formed
? ? ? [b] no longer emphasizes commonness
? ? ? [c] maintains the inherent american thinking mode
? ? ? [d] complies with the american belief system
25.ryan的谈论标明,标准查验的推广。
【a】阻止新习气的构成
【b】不再偏重常识
【c】坚持了美国人天然生成的思维方法
【d】和美国崇奉体系是共同的

二、中心词汇与超纲词汇1.auto-pilot a.主动导航的
2.routine n.常规,例行公务 a.往常的,常规的
3.paradoxical a.反论的,荒诞的,自相敌对的
4.rut n.车辙,常轨,常规 v.在……构成车辙
5.pathway n.途径
6.highlight n.精彩局势,最显着(重要)有些 vt.加亮,使显着
7.foster vt.推进,抚育,抚育 n.抚育者,鼓舞者

三、阅览答案:c d a d a四、全文翻译:?????????习气是个非常风趣的东西。咱们一不留神就堕入其间,咱们的大脑进入主动导航状况,在放松中就堕入了了解的方法所带来的无知道的舒畅中。william wordsworth在19世纪就说过“真实控制着短少思考的人类的不是选择,而是习气”。在不断改变的21世纪,即便“习气”这个字眼也富含贬义。
????????因而,如同在谈到创造力和立异才能时谈论习气显得彼此有些敌对。可是,大脑研讨者现已发现,当咱们有知道地培育新习气时,咱们也能创造出平行途径,甚至创造出全新的脑细胞,它们可以跳过咱们现有的思维而进入新的立异途径。
????????咱们并不是原封不动的习气性动物,咱们可以经过培育新的习气的方法指引自个的改变,实践上,当咱们测验越多的新事物,当咱们越多地走出自个舒畅规模,咱们内在的创造力就大,不管是在作业中仍是在自个的日子中。
????????但不必吃力气去消除旧的习气;一旦这些常规旧式进入大脑,它们就留在那里了。相反,咱们有知道地培育自个的新习气创造出平行途径,这些途径可以绕过那些陈规的途径。
????????dawana markova是《翻开式思维》一书的作者,她认为“立异所需要的第一要素就是对猎奇的沉浸,可是咱们却被练习去‘做抉择计划’,正如咱们的总裁,他把自个称作为‘抉择计划者’”。她又弥补道,“做抉择计划就是铲除悉数的可以性,只留下一个。而一个长于改造的思维家总在探究许多其他的可以性。”
????????她说:“咱们一切人都在无知道中处置疑问。”在20世纪60年代晚期,研讨人员就发现人类天然生成就有才能以四种首要方法应对应战:分析方法,流程方法,联络方法(或许叫协作方法),立异方法。而到了芳华期,大脑就会把其间一半的才能关闭,仅留下那些咱们在生命的前十几二十年中对咱们最有价值的思考方法。
????????当前标准化查验偏重的是分析方法和流程方法,这就意味着咱们很稀有人运用咱们创造性思维方法和协作方法。m.j.ryan是2006年的那本书《本年我会…》的作者,也是markova女士的商业火伴。如说明道:“这打破了美国崇奉体系的首要规则——任何人可以做任何作业。标准化查验是咱们耐久以来制造的一个鬼话,它造就了普通。晓得咱们的优势然后持续打开自个的优势会造就杰出”。这正是构成新习气的意义地址。

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